Thomson Reuters journalists are subject to an Editorial Handbook which requires fair presentation and disclosure of relevant interests.. As soon as the holiday merchandise starts piling up in retail stores, I get asked for my "top picks" in the sector. Gillespie believes that the heel and the partial sole found with it may have belonged to Amelia Earhart. Although pulling a gun during a heated argument, especially one that being broadcast to a large group of people courtesy of a satellite system, is definitely cause for concern, attempted murder might be out of the equations. The city dim sum is one eye popping parade of rolling carts. Various pages bothering to have customers to aware of this simple fact exactly.. E shopping portals also give amazing deals and discounts and you experience the convenience of home delivery too! Getting somebody to wash your clothes was no ever so easy huh?!!Celebrities who Wear Air Jordan ShoesAll About Hand Held VacuumStudy Of The Vacuum CleanerLearn About The Roomba Made By IRobotBest Toolbox ManufacturersQuickbooks Merchant AccountsVacuum Cleaner Reviews Hoover Vacuum Cleaners UH30010COMMaterials in Making Your Own PurseHoover Mach 3 Cyclonic Bagless Upright U5180910 Vacuum Cleaner ReviewBorn Shoes ReviewHoover Savvy Bagless Upright U8174900 Vacuum Cleaner ReviewThe Lightning Rod Stun Pen Is One Of The Best Stun Guns For Sale On The MarketReliable iPhone 3G 2.2.1 UnlockHoover Fold Away Widepath Bagless Upright U5175900 Vacuum Cleaner ReviewAll About The Oreck XL UltraEureka Boss Power Plus 4703D Vacuum Cleaner ReviewMotorola L6i A Simple Touch of ClassA Brief History on Nike Athletic FootwearPolaris Pool Vacuums and its usesNokia 6500 Slide Phone A Style StatementLG KP 106 B The Economy Mobile PhoneMaking Or Buying Your Own Pepper Spray Antidote?The Inimitable Style of Murano Glass FigurinesHow To Choose The Right Get Well Greeting CardsThe History Of Mont Blanc PensThe Colorful World of Murano Glass JewelryInsight Into American Greeting CardsThe History Of The SuitSuction Problem Troubleshooting on Vacuum CleanersApples IPod Touch Movies. Athletic shoes commonly get softer uppers as well as further flexible soles, creating them practically invincible with the comfort category. However, the Eastern Conference Finals brought forth the Chicago Bulls, the first time LeBron's boys would face a team with a first place seeding.MIAMI HEAT VS. 29, 2004. NFL jerseys China Your heel should not slip as you walk. Lakers NBA Champions in Los AngelesThe 1971 72 season brought several changes. The best New Balance shoes for men and women with flat feet are specifically designed for overpronaters. Only a few could spend a large sum of money for the collection, and fans who can't afford remained disappointed. The momentum, the flow and the rhythm were always with us.

cheap NHL jerseys

Property TaxesHow to Break Out the Property Taxes Between a Rental Property Primary ResidenceAre Sunrooms Subject to Property Taxes?Ways for Homeowners to Save on Their Property TaxesProperty Taxes vs. 3 looks wrong.. The Manhunter has also been seen flying in space with no difficulty, and in space he can fly at speeds that has allowed him to keep up with the likes of even Superman.

cheap jerseys wholesale site

The prospect of a debt restructuring spooked investors and sent the price of Puerto Rico's benchmark general obligation bonds that carry an 8 percent coupon and mature in 2035 74514LE86=MSRB down nearly 10 percent to a record average low of 69.510 cents on the dollar. Wei will get a quick chance to exact revenge on Chen Long as the duo are expected to cross paths again most likely in the final of the Malaysian Open, which will be held at the Putra Stadium from Wednesday..

How to Make a Complete Electronics Lab at Home


Creating your own complete electronics lab at home is essential if you are passionate about electronics. Learning electronics is more about practicing and experimenting. Like Aristotle said in one of his quote:

For the things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them.

They are a couple of tools which are essential in electronics and needs to be in every maker’s electronics lab. But nowadays, they are so many choices and brands out there that it might be difficult to find out which one to choose from. In this short tutorial we will show you what are the most important characteristics to look for when selecting electronics tools for your newly created electronics lab.

 

Why having an electronics lab at home matter?

Most of the experienced electronics engineer will agree that the best way to learn electronics is by designing and testing circuits. It is possible to use electronics simulators to have and idea of how a circuit behaves and it is even recommended to start with. But most of the problems happens in practice. Having an electronics lab at home will help you experiment and understand the practical side of making electronic circuits.

The best experiences that I had when starting to design circuits where when I was disassembling the different gadgets that I had at home. By doing so, I have learned so much on the structure of electronic devices and what they were made of.  A good resource to see different electronics devices tear-down without having to do it yourself is ifixit.

In short being able to test and probe the different circuits that you will come across really helps to get a practical experience. It will then be easier to design new circuits the proper way from scratch.

 

What electronics tools do you need?

Below are 4 basic tools which will help you in your different projects.

[ Stay tuned for the second part of this tutorial which will be more detailed, with more tools ].

 

1 – Digital Multimeter

The basic functionality of a digital multimeter (or DDM) is to get certain values from an electronic circuit. It is used to measure voltage, current, resistance, but also to test the continuity of traces and wires.

If you are looking for the best multimeter in the market for your electronics lab, well there is not really such a thing. They have different characteristics which needs to be considered separately for each use case.

The main question to ask is:  What is the multimeter going to be used for ?
If you are a professional, you would like to have one which is reliable, precise and functional. Obviously it will cost more than one intended to be used by a hobbyist.

In any case, here are the main characteristics to consider:

  • Resolution

The resolution is the minimum value a digital multimeter can measure. As most of the DMM now have a digital display, the resolution is the number of digits which can be shown on the screen. The resolution is generally between 3½ and 4½. For instance a DMM with a resolution of 4½ means that it has 4 digits which can display a value between 0 and 9 and one last digit which can be either 0 or 1.

  • Accuracy

The accuracy is expressed in % of the reading. So for example a 0.1% accuracy multimeter will output 9.9V for a 10V signal. In fact, that is not exactly correct because the previous example is only taking into account one part of the accuracy. There is also an error due to the internal circuit, the ADC and the display of the DMM (Least significant digit error or LSD error).

The complete formula is :    Accuracy = ± (% of reading + LSD error).

  • True RMS

True RMS multimeters are able to measure sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal AC waveform. The value given by the multimeter is equivalent to the DC (Direct Current) value of the waveform. It is generally recommended to have that function as it is extremely useful when dealing with periodic signals.

  • Input impedance

Standard impedance are around 1MΩ . The higher the impedance is, the less perturbations the DMM will introduce when it is connected to a circuit.

2 – Soldering Iron

Choosing a good soldering iron is essential. It is one of the most important thing to consider if you are planning to have an electronics lab at home. We have all, at least once, ran into a situation where we tried to solder a component using a “not so appropriate” soldering iron without great success. They are many factors to consider before choosing a soldering iron. Here are the most important ones:

  • The wattage

The wattage provides an indication of how powerful the soldering Iron is. If the wattage is too low, it might be difficult to perform certain tasks like soldering relatively big wires on a circuit. In general, while certain makers uses soldering irons with power between 15W and 35W, professionals can go as high as 80W.

  • Tips

The ability to change the tip of the iron gives more flexibility. For soldering small components like SMT (surface-mount technology), a small and thin tip is more suitable. They are usually relatively cheap. So having 3 or 4 tips of different sizes is a good option.

  • Temperature control option

Some of the Irons have the option to manually adjust the temperature of the tip. If possible, It is recommended to choose an iron with that functionality. Setting up a too high or too low temperature can either result in a bad solder joint or an overheat of the component. Before soldering a component, always double check the maximum allowed temperature and set the soldering iron temperature accordingly.

  • Brand

From experience, “Weller” and “Circuit Specialists” are suitable for most of the jobs and their soldering irons are really fun to work with.

  • Price

There is a soldering Iron for every budget!

$10 to $30 for a soldering pencil. $20 to $70 for a soldering gun. $40 to $200 for a soldering station. Finally above $250 for a complete rework/ repair system.

3 – Digital Oscilloscope

An oscilloscope is an indispensable tool for anyone interested in observing  a signal which changes over time. They have integrated features that allows to measure average Voltage, Frequency, Duty Cycle, Amplitude of a signal and much more. Selecting an oscilloscope will mainly depend on it usage. Here are the things to consider :

  • Bandwidth

The bandwidth is the maximum frequency at which the oscilloscope can measure a signal with a minimal amplitude loss. At the specified bandwidth frequency, the amplitude of a sinusoidal signal will be attenuated by -3dB (dB stands for decibels).

In short the oscilloscope will display 70.7% of the amplitude of the real signal at the specified bandwidth frequency. For signals with a frequency higher than the bandwidth, the amplitude of the signal will be even more reduced.

The bandwidth should be chosen to be greater than the maximum frequency of the measured signal.

  • Digital vs. Analog

Since the scientist Karl Ferdinand Braun invented the oscilloscope in 1897, they have been a lot of changes since then. The technology has evolve from analog to digital, which brings up more capability.

It enables the makers to benefit from functions such as Signal processing, Waveform analysis, Signal recording and so on… Nowadays, digital oscilloscopes are growing in popularity and are the most widely used. They use the ADC of an integrated microcontroller to sample and convert the analog signal to a digital signal.

You will still be able to find analog oscilloscopes, but the choice is limited as they are based on old technologies which are only supported by few manufacturers. It is then preferred to use a digital oscilloscope nowadays, as they have more functionalities than the analog ones.

  • Number of channels

2 to 4 channels are the most common. Usually when dealing with different signals which are temporally related, it is a good idea to have all the signals plotted on the screen at the same time. If more channels are needed,  it is possible to find an appropriate oscilloscope with high end suppliers like National Instruments  (Check the PCI-5150 from National Instruments for more details).

  • Sampling rate

Sampling rate and Bandwidth goes together even if they are not directly related. The sampling rate is the number of time per seconds the signal is acquired. It is usually expressed either in MSps (Mega Samples per second) of GSps (Giga Samples per second). Because of the Nyquist-Shannon theorem, the sampling rate is chosen to be 3 to 4 times the bandwidth in order to avoid aliasing and to provide an accurate reconstruction of the signal.

  • Resolution

The resolution is the the number of bits returned by the internal ADC of the oscilloscope. There is a simple rule for choosing the resolution: The higher, the better!

Choosing a high resolution will allow to measure small changes in the input voltage.

The minimum voltage that an oscilloscope can measure is determined by the formula:  Vmin = Input Range/2b

Where b stands for the number of bits of the ADC.

  • Input impedance

The input impedance is noticeable when measuring high frequencies. At those frequencies, small resistances, capacitors or inductances can affect the measurement of the signal. Every oscilloscope adds a certain impedance to the circuit it is connected to.

Basically, when connecting an oscilloscope to a circuit, there is a resistance of the order of a MΩ in parallel with a capacitor in the pF range which are added to the circuit. Generally, using a probe with your digital oscilloscope will help attenuate the effect of the input impedance. Probes with ratios 10:1 are the most common.

4 – DC Power supply

It is the ideal equipment to power your projects. Choosing an AC to DC power adapter is quite straightforward. They are 3 characteristics to consider :

  • The Output voltage rating

It represents the maximum output voltage that the power supply can deliver. Power adapters are available either in unregulated or regulated voltage. It is most of the time a good idea to choose a regulated voltage output. There is a wider rage of voltages to choose from compared to the unregulated version which only provides a single voltage.

  • Maximum output current

Each power adapter has its limits in term of the maximum current that it can output. It is important that the load of the circuit is less than the maximum output current of the power supply. Not meeting this requirement will lead to the power supply failing when it is connected to the circuit.

  • Ripples

Ripples are variations which will be present in the output signal of the power supply unit. Even if a regulated output power adapter is used, those ripples will still be observed. The ripples are greater in non-regulated DC power supplies. This is yet another reason to choose a regulated power supply from the start for your electronics lab.

Those tools are just the basics that you can have in your electronics lab. Obviously there is much more to cover here to have a complete electronics lab set up that will allow you to design your own electronic circuits. Electronics is fun and with the right tools it is nowadays possible to design complex circuits and system cost effectively.

makersecrets


Some links in this post are affiliate links which help us run the website and provide up to date content.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.